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SR-IOV

SR-IOV(Single Root I/O Virtualization)是一个将PCIe共享给虚拟机的标准,通过为虚拟机提供独立的内存空间、中断、DMA流,来绕过VMM实现数据访问。SR-IOV基于两种PCIe functions:

  • PF (Physical Function): 包含完整的PCIe功能,包括SR-IOV的扩张能力,该功能用于SR-IOV的配置和管理。
  • FV (Virtual Function): 包含轻量级的PCIe功能。每一个VF有它自己独享的PCI配置区域,并且可能与其他VF共享着同一个物理资源

SR-IOV要求

  • CPU 必须支持IOMMU(比如英特尔的 VT-d 或者AMD的 AMD-Vi,Power8 处理器默认支持IOMMU)
  • 固件Firmware 必须支持IOMMU
  • CPU 根桥必须支持 ACS 或者ACS等价特性
  • PCIe 设备必须支持ACS 或者ACS等价特性
  • 建议根桥和PCIe 设备中间的所有PCIe 交换设备都支持ACS,如果某个PCIe交换设备不支持ACS,其后的所有PCIe设备只能共享某个IOMMU 组,所以只能分配给1台虚机。

SR-IOV vs PCI path-through

SR-IOV vs DPDK

1

2

3

SR-IOV使用示例

开启VF:

modprobe -r igb
modprobe igb max_vfs=7
echo "options igb max_vfs=7" >>/etc/modprobe.d/igb.conf

查找Virtual Function:

# lspci | grep 82576
0b:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Gigabit Network Connection (rev 01)
0b:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Gigabit Network Connection(rev 01)
0b:10.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.2 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.3 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.4 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.5 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.6 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:10.7 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.2 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.3 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.4 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
0b:11.5 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)

# virsh nodedev-list | grep 0b
pci_0000_0b_00_0
pci_0000_0b_00_1
pci_0000_0b_10_0
pci_0000_0b_10_1
pci_0000_0b_10_2
pci_0000_0b_10_3
pci_0000_0b_10_4
pci_0000_0b_10_5
pci_0000_0b_10_6
pci_0000_0b_11_7
pci_0000_0b_11_1
pci_0000_0b_11_2
pci_0000_0b_11_3
pci_0000_0b_11_4
pci_0000_0b_11_5
$ virsh nodedev-dumpxml pci_0000_0b_00_0
<device>
   <name>pci_0000_0b_00_0</name>
   <parent>pci_0000_00_01_0</parent>
   <driver>
      <name>igb</name>
   </driver>
   <capability type='pci'>
      <domain>0</domain>
      <bus>11</bus>
      <slot>0</slot>
      <function>0</function>
      <product id='0x10c9'>82576 Gigabit Network Connection</product>
      <vendor id='0x8086'>Intel Corporation</vendor>
   </capability>
</device>

通过libvirt绑定到虚拟机

$ cat >/tmp/interface.xml <<EOF
<interface type='hostdev' managed='yes'>
     <source>
       <address type='pci' domain='0' bus='11' slot='16' function='0'/>
     </source>
</interface>
EOF
$ virsh attach-device MyGuest /tmp/interface. xml --live --config

当然也可以给网卡配置MAC地址和VLAN:

<interface type='hostdev' managed='yes'>
     <source>
       <address type='pci' domain='0' bus='11' slot='16' function='0'/>
     </source>
     <mac address='52:54:00:6d:90:02'>
     <vlan>
        <tag id='42'/>
     </vlan>
     <virtualport type='802.1Qbh'>
       <parameters profileid='finance'/>
     </virtualport>
   </interface>

通过Qemu绑定到虚拟机

/usr/bin/qemu-kvm -name vdisk -enable-kvm -m 512 -smp 2 \
-hda /mnt/nfs/vdisk.img \
-monitor stdio \
-vnc 0.0.0.0:0 \
-device pci-assign,host=0b:00.0

优缺点

Pros:

  • More Scalable than Direct Assign
  • Security through IOMMU and function isolation
  • Control Plane separation through PF/VF notion
  • High packet rate, Low CPU, Low latency thanks to Direct Pass through

Cons:

  • Rigid: Composability issues
  • Control plane is pass through, puts pressure on Hardware resources
  • Parts of the PCIe config space are direct map from Hardware
  • Limited scalability (16 bit)
  • SR-IOV NIC forces switching features into the HW
  • All the Switching Features in the Hardware or nothing

参考文档

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