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Network Policy

Network Policy提供了基于策略的网络控制,用于隔离应用并减少攻击面。它使用标签选择器模拟传统的分段网络,并通过策略控制它们之间的流量以及来自外部的流量。

在使用Network Policy之前,需要注意

  • apiserver开启extensions/v1beta1/networkpolicies
  • 网络插件要支持Network Policy,如Calico、Romana、Weave Net和trireme等

策略

Namespace隔离

默认情况下,所有Pod之间是全通的。每个Namespace可以配置独立的网络策略,来隔离Pod之间的流量。比如隔离namespace的所有Pod之间的流量(包括从外部到该namespace中所有Pod的流量以及namespace内部Pod相互之间的流量):

kubectl annotate ns <namespace> "net.beta.kubernetes.io/network-policy={\"ingress\": {\"isolation\": \"DefaultDeny\"}}"

注:目前,Network Policy仅支持Ingress流量控制。

Pod隔离

通过使用标签选择器(包括namespaceSelector和podSelector)来控制Pod之间的流量。比如下面的Network Policy

  • 允许default namespace中带有role=frontend标签的Pod访问default namespace中带有role=db标签Pod的6379端口
  • 允许带有project=myprojects标签的namespace中所有Pod访问default namespace中带有role=db标签Pod的6379端口
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: NetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: test-network-policy
  namespace: default
spec:
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: db
  ingress:
  - from:
    - namespaceSelector:
        matchLabels:
          project: myproject
    - podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          role: frontend
    ports:
    - protocol: tcp
      port: 6379

示例

以calico为例看一下Network Policy的具体用法。

首先配置kubelet使用CNI网络插件

kubelet --network-plugin=cni --cni-conf-dir=/etc/cni/net.d --cni-bin-dir=/opt/cni/bin ...

安装calio网络插件

# 注意修改CIDR,需要跟k8s pod-network-cidr一致,默认为192.168.0.0/16
kubectl apply -f http://docs.projectcalico.org/v2.1/getting-started/kubernetes/installation/hosted/kubeadm/1.6/calico.yaml

首先部署一个nginx服务

$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --replicas=2
deployment "nginx" created
$ kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80
service "nginx" exposed

此时,通过其他Pod是可以访问nginx服务的

$ kubectl run busybox --rm -ti --image=busybox /bin/sh
Waiting for pod default/busybox-472357175-y0m47 to be running, status is Pending, pod ready: false

Hit enter for command prompt

/ # wget --spider --timeout=1 nginx
Connecting to nginx (10.100.0.16:80)
/ #

开启default namespace的DefaultDeny Network Policy后,其他Pod(包括namespace外部)不能访问nginx了:

$ kubectl annotate ns default "net.beta.kubernetes.io/network-policy={\"ingress\": {\"isolation\": \"DefaultDeny\"}}"

$ kubectl run busybox --rm -ti --image=busybox /bin/sh
Waiting for pod default/busybox-472357175-y0m47 to be running, status is Pending, pod ready: false

Hit enter for command prompt

/ # wget --spider --timeout=1 nginx
Connecting to nginx (10.100.0.16:80)
wget: download timed out
/ #

最后再创建一个运行带有access=true的Pod访问的网络策略

$ cat nginx-policy.yaml
kind: NetworkPolicy
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: access-nginx
spec:
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      run: nginx
  ingress:
  - from:
    - podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          access: "true"

$ kubectl create -f nginx-policy.yaml
networkpolicy "access-nginx" created


# 不带access=true标签的Pod还是无法访问nginx服务
$ kubectl run busybox --rm -ti --image=busybox /bin/sh
Waiting for pod default/busybox-472357175-y0m47 to be running, status is Pending, pod ready: false

Hit enter for command prompt

/ # wget --spider --timeout=1 nginx 
Connecting to nginx (10.100.0.16:80)
wget: download timed out
/ #


# 而带有access=true标签的Pod可以访问nginx服务
$ kubectl run busybox --rm -ti --labels="access=true" --image=busybox /bin/sh
Waiting for pod default/busybox-472357175-y0m47 to be running, status is Pending, pod ready: false

Hit enter for command prompt

/ # wget --spider --timeout=1 nginx
Connecting to nginx (10.100.0.16:80)
/ #

最后开启nginx服务的外部访问:

$ cat nginx-external-policy.yaml
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: NetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: front-end-access
  namespace: sock-shop
spec:
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      run: nginx
  ingress:
    - ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80

$ kubectl create -f nginx-external-policy.yaml

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